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Clean Energy News Vol. 12, Number 1, January 11, 2012

Clean Energy News
Vol. 12, Number 1, January 11, 2012
CE News is a free weekly e-mail publications that features news, information and events related tp clean energy, clean air and climate change. CE News is published by Clean Energy Nepal. For more information on our campaign please visit
•    Post COP-17 Workshop Held
•    EU‚ UK Aid for Climate Change
•    Improved Cooking Stoves Programme to be Registered in CDM
•    Climber to Take Climate Message on "Unique" Trek
•    Araniko Highway Expansion Resumes
•    Energy Ministry Plans to Buy Power from Industrial Units
•    Cold Hits Western, Central Nepal
•    Hong Kong Air Pollution at Worst Levels Ever: Report
•    Europe's Mountains Show Clear and Rapid Change to a Warming Climate
•    U.S. Weighs Retaliation over Europe Carbon Tax
•    Climate Change Media Coverage Drops 20 Percent in 2011
•    AFBF: Climate Change Not Likely to Harm Ag
•    Global Warming Delays Natural Patterns of Glaciation, Researchers Say
•    Link Of The Week
•    Did You Know?
•    Media Watch
•    QUIZ Of The Week #  504
•    Answer Of Quiz Of The Week # 503

Local News
Post COP-17 Workshop Held
Pos-COP17 workshop was successful in sharing overview of Durban process and outcomes in clear picture and way ahead for Nepal among diverse stakeholders.
The half day program was organized at Hotel Everest, Kathmandu on January 6, 2012. The main objective of program was to share the outcomes of COP-17 and way ahead for Nepal from COP. The program was successful in bringing participation of diverse stakeholder. Around 80 participants participated in the sharing workshop from diverse field. The program started with the welcome remarks from CA member Hon. Parmila Rai and Hon. Hem Raj Tater, Minister, Ministry of Environment. Mr. Tater expressed, “COP is fight between rich and poor”. He also said, “Lot of homework is needed before participating in COP”. He announced that mountain countries conference will be held to raise the voice/agendas of mountain countries in global negotiations and Nepal have been actively participating in LDCs groups.
In a technical session, Mr. Ugan Manandhar presented with overall insight to Durban process and outcomes in bigger picture. The technical session was followed by panel discussion. The panel was chaired by Mr. Krishna Gyawali, Secretary of Ministry of Environment. The panel included different experts and government bureaucrats involved in COP process. The panel discussion covered issues of COP 17 such as REDD, adaptation, finance, mountain issues. Mr. Batu Krishna Uprety, joint secretary of Ministry of Environment one of the panelist explained the role of government in COP process and outcomes. The program was very interactive with the floor open for discussion to distinguished stakeholders present along with the panel discussion.
Post-COP17 Sharing Workshop was organized by CCNN and CEN on 6 January, 2012 at Hotel Everest, Kathmandu. The workshop was supported by Oxfam, European Commission and ISET-Nepal.
EU‚ UK Aid for Climate Change
The UK’s Department for International Development and the European Union have agreed to provide a grant assistance of Euros16.5 million (Rs 1.8 billion) to Nepal to implement the Nepal Climate Change Support Programme.
“Of the total grant assistance, the UK will provide € 7.9 million and the European Union (EU) will provide the rest,” DFID, EU and the government said in a statement. A Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Nepal and the Government of the United Kingdom was signed today at the Ministry of Finance. “The goal of the Nepal Climate Change Support Programme is to enable Nepal’s poorest and most vulnerable communities to adapt to the effects of climate change, by supporting local level adaptation programmes in the most climate vulnerable districts of the mid and far western regions of the country,” said the statement. According to EU, this will assist Nepal to implement its Climate Change Policy, 2011, and develop and implement necessary strategies. As per the Climate Change Policy 2011 and National Adaptation Programme of Action 2010, 80 per cent of the total funds need to be spent on local level activities. The programme will last till March 31, 2015.
Source: January 11, 2012
Improved Cooking Stoves Programme to be Registered in CDM
Nepal has been making preparations for taking Improved Cooking Stoves Programme meant for emitting less green house gas, to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
If the programme is taken to the CDM, Nepal's green house gas will be measured and Nepal will fall in the category of low emission countries. Manager of the Alternate Energy Promotion Centre, Climate and Carbon Unit, Raju Lodari informed that some 35 thousand earthen stoves will be made in Terai this year and 3,000 iron stoves in the high Himalayan region. One improved stove emits 1.8 ton less carbon dioxide annually as compared to the general stoves. Likewise, Sustainable Development Centre's Executive Director Rajan Thapa said the programme is being registered in CDM through three projects in the six districts of the country. He said 75,000 improved stoves will be built in six years in Nawalparasi, Chitwan, Bardiya, Banke, Morang and Saptari district.
Source: January 8, 2012
Climber to Take Climate Message on "Unique" Trek
A Sherpa who has climbed Mount Everest a record 21 times, will trek hundreds of kilometers (miles) along some of the world's highest mountains to highlight the impact of climate change on the Himalayas, organizers said on Monday.
Apa Sherpa, 52, will be accompanied by two-time Everest climber Dawa Steven Sherpa on the grueling 1,700 km (1,062 mile) 120-day walk. The route passes along the length of Nepal's Himalayas going through the shadow of eight of the world's 14 highest mountains including the 8,850 meter (29,035 feet) Mount Everest to raise awareness of global warming. "During the walk we will see the challenges faced by the local people in dealing with the effects of climate change on the remote and poor foothills of Himalayas," Sherpa told Reuters about the trek beginning next week. Sherpa said he had written to global celebrities like U.N. chief Ban Ki-moon, former U.S. Vice-President Al Gore and Britain's Prince Harry inviting them to join him along some parts of his journey saying it would "make the world take notice of our dire situation." However he said none of them had confirmed participation. Environmental activists say the Himalayan glaciers, the source of several Asian rivers, are shrinking fast due to global warming threatening the lives of 1.3 billion people living downstream in their basins. In 2009, Sherpa collected a piece of rock from Mount Everest which was presented to U.S. President Barack Obama to highlight the impact of climate change on the Himalayas. "The international community is now asking us how to help Nepal cope with the problem and we have no answers," Sherpa said. "During this trek we will try to find out how the mountain people are adapting and what they need to fight the impact of climate change," he said.
Experts say mountainous Nepal is vulnerable to climate change despite being responsible for only 0.025 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, among the lowest in the world. Global temperatures increased by an average of 0.74 degrees Celsius over the past 100 years with warming in the Himalayas being faster, according to the Kathmandu-based International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).
Source: January 10, 2012
Araniko Highway Expansion Resumes
Six days after the Supreme Court lifted its stay order on government’s decision to bulldoze illegal structures along the Minbhawan-Tinkune road section, authorities today resumed the drive on the Araniko Highway.
The move comes a day after the meeting of the Metropolitan Traffic Police Division, Department of Roads and Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee decided to continue the road-expansion campaign. With the order lifted, authorities bulldozed houses and huts in Maitighar from where the Araniko Highway begins that were encroaching the public land meant for highway. DIG Ganesh Raj Rai, MTPD in-charge, said the road-widening was meant to ensure that there was 25 metres space on either side of the highway for vehicles and pedestrians, in line with the notice published on Nepal Gazette on July 4, 1977. As part of measures to enforce the law and ease traffic congestion in the Valley, authorities have already demolished structures built on public land in Naxal, Naagpokhari, Lainchaur, Sinamangal, Tinkune, Bijuli Bazaar, Sundhara, Maharajgunj, Sorhakhutte, Shahid Gate, Ratopul, Kamalpokhari, Naxal, Dilli Bazaar, Kalanki. The court on Tuesday had issued a stay on the government bid to demolish ‘illegal’ structures along the Kalimati-Kirtipur road section. PM Baburam Bhattarai and his ministers have directed offices concerned to continue the work.
Source: January 7, 2012
Energy Ministry Plans to Buy Power from Industrial Units
In an effort to bring down the power shortage, the Ministry of Energy (MoE) has planned to purchase electricity from captive power plants owned by factories in the country. The ministry has asked interested factories to come up with their proposed rates for the electricity to sell to the government by Jan 10.
Captive power plants refer to the backup power sources installed by factories to supply electricity during power cuts. As per the nature and need of the factory, such power is generated by burning different sources like diesel, bio-mass, coal or bagasse (the pulp that remains after the juice is extracted from sugarcane). MoE officials said that as various factories in the country can collectively generate around 150 MW of electricity, the ministry has been considering purchasing energy from them. The latest move by the ministry follows the government’s assurance to take all the measures necessary to ease the power crisis. The ministry had advised the government only a month ago that the best way to cut the power shortage would be to install a diesel plant. “It is still a big question if the country can afford a diesel plant due to its high operating cost. Neither the private sector nor the government has shown any commitment to operate a diesel plant,” said a senior MoE official seeking anonymity, “Therefore; the ministry has recently opted to purchase electricity from industrial units.” He added that some five days ago, the ministry had called a meeting of the private sector with a view to buying energy from them. “After determining how many factories will be ready to sell energy to the government and how much will be available, the ministry will move ahead with the establishment of a diesel plant.” Another official said that as the country has seen a rise in demand for another 100 MW of electricity this year, the power that is planned to be bought from the private sector would not bring down the energy crisis noticeably.
Balananda Poudel, energy secretary, said that the ministry took the recent move to end the power crisis by utilizing local resources. He added that since the announcement, some 16 factories had responded positively to the ministry. “However, they are yet to confirm their intention, and we also don’t know about the status of their energy production,” said Poudel. On Sunday, Prime Ministry Baburam Bhattarai asked the ministry to begin negotiations with the private sector to use its diesel generators to produce electricity. The private sector, however, termed the ministry’s move “impractical” as by the time the process of buying energy from the industrial plants is completed, the power crisis would have ended this year. Manish Agrawal, managing director of Lumbini Sugar Company, said that the ministry’s plan wouldn’t yield good results as it is hard to feed the energy produced by the factories into the national transmission line and the technical part of this process is also costly and complicated.
Source: January 10, 2012
Cold Hits Western, Central Nepal
Kathmandu remained cold and hazy Sunday while mercury dipped in the western and central part of the country during the day with the western disturbance seen over the North Arabian Sea entering the country from Far West through Jammu and Kashmir of India.
“We felt cold in Kathmandu during the day due to the massive drop in maximum temperature that came down to 12.7 degree Centigrade from Saturday´s 20,” said Rajendra Shrestha, senior meteorologist, Meteorological Forecasting Division. Shrestha explained that the temperature couldn´t drop drastically during the night due to the cloud cover, which also blocked the sun to reduce day´s temperature, resulting in rise in minimum temperature to 3.2 from Saturday´s 1. “The cloud cover will remain in Kathmandu for another day and the day will be colder Monday while the minimum temperature will slightly rise. The weather will clear in Kathmandu and eastern Tarai from Tuesday while the eastern hills will take another couple of days to clear,” he added. Kathmandu also saw scattered rainfall at some places in the evening. Shrestha explained that the minimum temperature will again come down in Kathmandu once the cloud cover clears. The western hills received snowfall while rainfall was seen in the plains. Normal life in Rukum and Rolpa has been affected by the heavy snowfall following incessant rainfall while crops have also been destroyed, reports our Rukum correspondent Kamal Thapa. The biting cold due to the cloud cover during the day stymied the movement of people. Our Baglung correspondent reported snowfall in Dhorpatan of the district and Mustang. Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP) said tourism activity was almost nil in Mustang following the snowfall while flights were also affected. Manang and Lamjung districts also recorded heavy snowfall, reports our Tanahu correspondent. Chief District Officer (CDO) of Manang Shrawan Kumar Timilsina said normal life of locals in headquarters Chame became difficult due to accumulation of up to three feet of snow. Classes were affected in district headquarters of Dailekh and other hill areas in the district due to sudden rainfall and snowfall, according to our Surkhet correspondent Kalendra Sejuwal. “Classes were affected after the first period and we declared holiday due to the cold,” said Khem Raj KC, principal, Tribhuvan Higher Secondary School. Flights to Karnali and other area in the region from Surkhet were also affected due to poor weather.
Sunday´s low visibility caused by heavy fog that hovered over Kathmandu and many parts of the country led to cancellation of a majority of flights in Kathmandu as well as outside. Just two international flights out of around 40 scheduled flights (including landings and take-offs) were witnessed at the Tribhuvan International Airport on Sunday, said the airport´s general manager Ratish Chandra Lal Suman. “While there were no international flights taking off from Kathmandu, only two flights -- that of Oman Air and Thai Airways -- landed in Kathmandu. The rest were diverted,” Suman said. Also, the domestic terminal at the airport saw just 25 percent of over 200 flights conducted.
Source: January 2, 2012
International News
Hong Kong Air Pollution at Worst Levels Ever: Report
Air pollution levels in Hong Kong were the worst ever last year, the South China Morning Post reported on Monday, a finding that may further undermine the city's role as an Asian financial centre as business executives relocate because of health concerns.
Worsening air quality in Hong Kong caused by vehicle emissions and industrial pollution from the neighboring Pearl River Delta is already forcing many in the financial community to move to Singapore. Readings at three roadside monitoring stations in Hong Kong's Central, Causeway Bay and Mong Kok commercial districts showed that pollution levels were above the 100 mark more than 20 percent of the time, the newspaper said, citing the city's Environmental Protection Department. This was 10 times worse than in 2005, when very high readings were recorded only 2 percent of the time, it said. The station in Central business district, home to the Asia headquarters of global banks such as HSBC Holdings Plc and Goldman Sachs Group Inc, showed the worst figures, with excessive readings a quarter of the time, the report said. Hourly readings are taken at the roadside stations throughout the year on major pollutants such as respirable suspended particles and nitrogen oxides. A reading above 100 means at least one pollutant fails air quality objectives.
Environmentalists renewed their calls for the immediate introduction of new air quality objectives, claiming that the government had deliberately delayed their introduction to ease the way for major infrastructure projects, the newspaper said. The department blamed the figures on unfavorable weather conditions, worsening background pollution and the number of ageing vehicles on streets. The newspaper quoted the government as saying a number of measures were being considered to help improve air quality, and new air quality objectives would be discussed by Hong Kong's legislature soon.
Source: January 8, 2012
Europe's Mountains Show Clear and Rapid Change to a Warming Climate
The decade from 2000 to 2009 was the warmest since global climate has been measured, and while localized studies have shown evidence of changes in mountain plant communities that reflect this warming trend, no study has yet taken a continental-scale view of the situation until now.
With the publication of "Continent-wide response of mountain vegetation to climate change," scheduled for Advance Online Publication (AOP) in Nature Climate Change on 8 January, researchers from 13 countries report clear and statistically significant evidence of a continent-wide warming effect on mountain plant communities. The findings are "clearly significant," says Ottar Michelsen, a researcher at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and one of the article's co-authors. "You can find studies that have shown an effect locally, and where researchers try to say something more globally, but in this case, when you have so many mountains in so many regions and can show an effect, that's a big thing." The article describes the results of a comprehensive effort to measure plant community changes in the mountains over the whole of Europe, with nearly a decade of time between the sampling efforts. Researchers looked at 60 summit sites and 867 vegetation samples from 17 mountain areas across Europe in 2001 and then revisited the mountain sample sites in 2008. In Norway, researchers studied mountain plots in the Dovre region of central Norway. By comparing the vegetation found in the sample plots in 2001 and 2008, the researchers were able to see a clear shift in the species in the plots towards species that preferred warmer temperatures.
Source: January 10, 2012
U.S. Weighs Retaliation over Europe Carbon Tax
By John Crawley and Andrew Quinn
The Obama administration is laying the groundwork for possible retaliation in response to a European law requiring airlines to pay for carbon emissions.
Discussions between key agencies have ramped up recently, although there is no consensus yet on what, if anything, the U.S. government should do unilaterally or in concert with other nations also upset with the law. The EU law went into effect on January 1 and requires global airlines to pay for carbon emissions on flights to and from Europe. Several experts said one option the United States could pursue would involve charging European airlines to maintain U.S. access to pressure EU policymakers. This strategy was used by the United States in a recently concluded dispute with Argentina over landing fees. "We are contemplating a wide range of possible steps that we could take, or actions that we might take," a senior administration official told Reuters. "All these are on the table, we haven't decided how to move forward on any specific one," the official said, while declining to give specifics on the possible steps.
U.S. airlines, some of which have already raised fares to offset the EU carbon trading scheme, expect a formal response from the Obama administration. "We take the White House at their word that they are prepared to take action, which could include a country-to-country legal action, retaliatory measures or any number of steps to urge the withdrawal of the EU's unilateral scheme in favor of a global approach," said Steve Lott, a spokesman for the U.S. industry's leading trade group, Airlines for America. The State and Transportation departments warned the European Union in December that the administration was prepared to "respond appropriately" if the EU did not reconsider the measure or seek a negotiated settlement through the United Nations. Neither occurred before the law took effect, prompting outcry from airlines globally. Carriers said the change amounted to a new tax at a time when they are wrestling with historically high fuel costs and softening demand in domestic flights, especially in the United States.
Source: January 7, 2012
Climate Change Media Coverage Drops 20 Percent in 2011
By Jeremy Hance
Global media reporting on climate change issues was down again last year, according to a new analysis from The Daily Climate. The news organization counted around 19,000 stories on climate issues during the year written by 7,140 journalists, falling 20 percent from 2010 levels.
Coverage fell despite the fact that extreme weather pummeled many parts of the world last year, from famine in East Africa, devastating drought in the Southern US and Mexico, and historic flooding in Thailand. Scientists have stated for years that climate change is likely to worsen such extreme weather events and make them more frequent. In addition, scientists and institutions ratcheted up warnings on the need to slash greenhouse gas emissions this decade or face warming higher than 2 degrees Celsius. "Based on my conversations with reporters, I believe this collapse is driven by editors and not reporters [...]. This view is supported by the fact that nation’s editorial boards have even more sharply cut their pieces," Joe Romm writes in Climate Progress, pointing to the fact that 2011 saw 580 editorials published on climate change, while 2009 saw 1,229. According to The Daily Climate, global warming coverage peaked in 2009, likely due to much-anticipated UN Climate conference in Copenhagen, when 32,400 stories appeared worldwide written by 11,100 journalists.
Source: January 5, 2012
AFBF: Climate Change Not Likely to Harm Ag
Record yields for staple crops in the United States and globally in recent years seem to contradict fears that agriculture will be negatively affected by increasing climate temperatures, according to James Taylor, senior fellow for the Heartland Institute and managing editor of Environment and Climate News. Taylor spoke today at an issues conference at the American Farm Bureau Federation's 93rd Annual Meeting.
Beyond debating the issue of whether global climate change is actually taking place and whom is to blame, Taylor addressed the issue of any potential impacts on agriculture and what effect any legislation or regulation could have. "Since 2007 we've seen record yields in production per acre in edible beans, cotton, alfalfa, sweet potatoes, canola, corn, hops, rice, wheat and more," said Taylor. "This is a long-term trend, and it applies globally, too, as global grain harvests have nearly tripled since 1961. Climate is not the only factor, but even if we accept global warming as a problem, it's clearly not inhibiting crop production." According to data presented by Taylor, computer models have incorrectly accounted for certain climate patterns over recent decades, and data has shown fewer and less severe periods of drought and less severe flooding on a global scale. Taylor conceded that there would certainly be regional exceptions, but on a larger scale, climate patterns could prove to be quite suitable for agriculture. Referencing research done by the International Journal of Climatology, Taylor explained that increases in precipitation would occur more frequently during the hotter and drier seasons of the year rather than during the spring thus avoiding the time of year more prone to flooding. While potential increases in temperature were not believed to be detrimental to crops, Taylor suggested that the greater threat to agriculture could come in the form of federal or state regulations regarding livestock production.
Source: January 10, 2012
Global Warming Delays Natural Patterns of Glaciation, Researchers Say
Unprecedented levels of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are disrupting normal patterns of glaciation, scientists said.
The Earth's current warm period that began about 11,000 years ago should give way to another ice age within about 1,500 years, according to the study published online Jan. 8 in Nature Geoscience. However, current levels of carbon dioxide are trapping too much heat in the atmosphere to allow the Earth to cool as it has in its prehistoric past in response to changes in Earth's orbital pattern.  The research team, collaboration among University of Florida, University College London, and University of Cambridge, said their data indicate that the next ice age will likely be delayed by tens of thousands of years. "Ice sheets like those in western Antarctica are already destabilized by global warming," said co-author Jim Channell, distinguished professor of geology at University of Florida. "When they eventually slough off and become a part of the ocean's volume, it will have a dramatic effect on sea level." Ice sheets will continue to melt until the next phase of cooling begins in earnest.
The study looks at the prehistoric climate-change drivers of the past to project the onset of the next ice age. Using astronomical models that show Earth's orbital pattern with all of its fluctuations and wobbles over the last several million years, astronomers can calculate the amount of solar heat that has reached the Earth's atmosphere during past glacial and interglacial periods. "We know from past records that Earth's orbital characteristics during our present interglacial period are a dead ringer for orbital characteristics in an interglacial period 780,000 years ago," said Channell. The pattern suggests that our current period of warmth should be ending within about 1,500 years.  However, there is a much higher concentration of greenhouse gases trapping the sun's heat in the Earth's atmosphere now than there was in at least the last several million years, he said. So the cooling that would naturally occur due to changes in the Earth's orbital characteristics are unable to turn the temperature tide. Over the past million years, the Earth's carbon dioxide levels, as recorded in ice core samples, have never reached more than 280 parts per million in the atmosphere. "We are now at 390 parts per million," Channell said. The sudden spike has occurred in the last 150 years. For millions of years, carbon dioxide levels have ebbed and flowed between ice ages. Orbital patterns initiate periods of warming that cause ocean circulation to change. The changes cause carbon dioxide-rich water in the deep ocean to well up toward the surface where the carbon dioxide is released as a gas back into the atmosphere. The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide then drives further warming and eventually the orbital pattern shifts again and decreases the amount of solar heat that reaches the Earth. "The problem is that now we have added to the total amount of CO2 cycling through the system by burning fossil fuels," said Channell. "The cooling forces can't keep up."  Channell said that the study brings to the forefront the importance of atmospheric carbon dioxide because it shows the dramatic effect that it is having on a natural cycle that has controlled our Earth's climate for millions of years.  "We haven't seen this high concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for several million years," Channell said. "All bets are off."
Source: January 10, 2012
Link of the Week

   Next ice age not likely before 1,500 years: study

  Please Visit:


Did you Know ?
A study in the Czech Republic has found a link between exposure to certain air pollutants and an increase in DNA damage for people exposed to high levels of the pollution. They found that breathing small quantities of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), called benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), caused an increase in the number of certain 'biomarkers' in DNA associated with a higher risk of diseases, including cancer.
Media and Event Watch
Every Monday 8:30 pm on Nepal FM 91.8 MHZ “Climate Change Mero Bhawisya Mero Chaso”
Every Sunday at 7:30 am on Radio Sagarmatha 102.4 MHz "Batabaran Dabali"
Every Monday at 5:30 pm (re-telecast every Tuesday 11 am) on ABC Television “Climate Change
Every Alternate Friday at 2 PM on ENPHO Hall – “Green Discussion” Organized by Clean Energy Nepal, Nepalese Youth for Climate Action anGrnd Green Youth Network
Every Friday on The Himalayan Times “THT Green Plus”
Environment Cycle Radio F.M.104.2Mhz (ECR FM)
QUIZ of the Week # 504
Financial Act 2002-2003 decided to collect pollution tax of ……………… from a unit of petroleum products sold in the Kathmandu Valley and provide it to EPF, but the provision has not been implemented. MoE data shows around Rs 690 million have been collected till now.
a)    50 paisa
b)    40 paisa
c)    30 paisa
d)    20 paisa

While sending your answer please mention “Quiz of the week#” in the subject line and please send your answer in

One lucky winner will get a T-shirt with an Environmental Message from Clean Energy Nepal.
Answer of the week # 503
On average, fossil fuel emissions have risen by …………. percent each year between 2000 and 2010 three times the rate of increase during the 1990s.
b) 3.1

Sushmita Dahal
Busanta Kumar Paudel
Yagya Vajra
Heerakaji Maharjan
Khem Raj Bhandari
Aayush Pokhrel
Dristy Shrestha

Sushmita Dahal is the lucky winner for this week. Please contact the CEN office within a week with your identity card.

Congratulation to the Winner and thanks to all participants.

Prepared by: Suman Udas and Pabitra Basnet
Edited by: Bhushan Tuladhar
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