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Clean Energy News Vol. 12, Number 28, September 12, 2012

Clean Energy News
Vol. 12, Number 28, September 12, 2012
CE News is a free weekly e-publication that features news, information and events related to clean energy, clean air and climate change. CE News is published by Clean Energy Nepal. For more information on our campaigns please visit
In this Issue
• Inferior transformer imports: NEA forms third panel in six months
• 6 embassies play spoilsport in road expansion drive
• Air pollution still a major bugbear
• Suffocating road expansion debris
• Arctic ice melt 'like adding 20 years of CO2 emissions'
• Global carbon trading system has 'essentially collapsed'
• Progress Made at Bangkok Climate Negotiations, but Is it Enough?
• Food prices soaring thanks to global warming
• Melting Himalayas May Magnify Water Scarcity

• Link Of The Week
• Did You Know?
• Media Watch
• QUIZ Of The Week # 525
• Answer Of Quiz Of The Week # 524
National News
Inferior transformer imports: NEA forms third panel in six months
By Ashok Thapa
11 September 2012
The Kathmandu Post 
The Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) board on Tuesday formed a committee to take action against the officials involved in the import of substandard transformers. This is the third committee formed over the issue in the last six months.
The six-member committee, led by Upendra Dev Bhatta, general manager at NEA’s Distribution and Consumer Service (West), has been asked to recommend action against the officials involved in the import of inferior transformers, besides finding out whether the officials named by the previous committee led by NEA board member Mohan Pant are actually responsible for scam.
The panel will seek explanation from officials accused by the Pant-led committee report. “This committee will find out whether the officials named by the Pant committee were really involved in the scam,” said Bhatta. “If the accusations are proven to be true, the committee will also recommend actions against them by holding consultations with the NEA management.”
In its report submitted to the NEA board on Tuesday, the Pant-led committee has said around 30 NEA officials, including those retired, are involved in the import of substandard transformers. Of the 30 officials, 20 were directly involved in the scam, it said. “The directly involved officials are those who were involved in negotiations and inspection of the transformers. And, those who gave the decision for the purchase were indirectly involved in the scam,” it said.
The report has also been submitted to the Commission for Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA).
The probe into the scam began six months ago after problems appeared in the transformers imported from China and Thailand. The inferior transformers resulted in higher leakages and some of them went defunct early. Such problems were seen in all 4,657 units imported in the last five years.
Over the period, NEA imported transformers from a Thai company—Sahabhant Electric Co Ltd—and four Chinese companies—Shenyang Dongneng Electricity Equipment Co Ltd, Hu Bei Sunlight Electric Co Ltd, SVR Electrical Pvt Ltd and Sichuan Dongfang Transformer Co Ltd.
The first probe committee was formed on the first week of April. Led by NEA board member Krishna Prasad Dulal, the panel had concluded that the imported transformers were technically faulty and that the NEA officials were responsible.
NEA sources say the case will be forwarded to CIAA if the involvement of high-level officials, including the general manager and deputy general manager, is established.
They said NEA has already submitted some documents, including the transformer purchase files, to CIAA as per the latter’s demand. The anti-graft body has so far sent two letters to NEA, asking that the case be handed over to it for further investigation.
CIAA Spokesperson Ishwori Prasad Poudel said even if NEA does not reply, the case would automatically come under CIAA’s purview.

6 embassies play spoilsport in road expansion drive
9 September 2012
The ongoing road expansion drive in the Kathmandu valley has hit a snag in some road sections after some diplomatic missions based in the capital demanded compensation while others expressed their inability to demolish their compound walls. Sources said the US embassy has demanded a compensation of US $ 5 million, while other embassies have expressed their inability to cooperate with the government, citing various reasons.
"We are trying to resolve the issue by holding an informal meeting with the concerned embassies," said a top government official, asking to be unnamed.
The road expansion drive being carried out by Kathmandu Valley Town Development Authority (KVTDA) in collaboration with the Metropolitan Traffic Police Division has affected six diplomatic missions -- Japanese, American, Russian, French, German and Chinese embassies.
While there is official response from Chinese and French embassies, Japanese embassy has citied financial reason for its inability to demolish its compound walls. While the German embassy is situated in Gyaneshwor, the remaining five other embassies are situated in Lazimpat and Baluwatar. Sources said the German embassy has said it would not be left with any compound wall if it knocks down the existing one.

Air pollution still a major bugbear
By Pragati Shahi
10 September 2012
The Kathmandu Post 
Plans to improve Kathmandu’s deteriorating air quality by introducing new monitoring initiatives are unlikely to bear fruit, thanks to the government laxity in assessing the level of pollution in the air that is taking an increasing toll on public health every year.
The new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) 2012 that came into effect a few weeks ago requires effective monitoring and collection of eight-hour and 24-hour samples of air pollutants like Total Suspended Particulates (TSP), Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5), carbon monoxide, lead and ozone levels for at least 347 days out of a 365-day year. The NAAQS further states that no particular place should fail to monitor air samples for two consecutive days. TSP consist of solid and liquid particles in the air that are harmful to health while PM10 is an air particle with a volume less than 10 micron that can easily enter into the end of the respiratory tract and cause serious health impacts. Both TSP and PM10 are considered major air pollutants.
However, in the current scenario, all existing air quality monitoring stations in seven parts of the Kathmandu Valley have not been functioning since 2007 due to a lack of proper maintenance and an intermittent power supply. As the government has neither repaired nor replaced the non-functioning monitoring stations, the NAAQS is like to fall flat.
Despite the fact that independent research and studies have clearly indicated the rising impact of the deteriorating air quality in the Valley on human health mostly due to unmanaged urbanisation, compounded by rapid population growth and poor urban transportation strategies, the Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MoEST) has failed to intervene in any form. Air quality assessments and preventive measures to halt the rise in pollutants have not come for several years. A research by the Yale Centre for Environmental Law and Policy at Yale University and the Centre for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University early this year listed Nepal as the third worst performing country in the world in terms of air quality with regard to effects on human health.
Surendra Subedi, chief of the Environment Pollution Control and Evaluation Division under the MoEST, admits that the ministry has no official data on the concentration of air pollutants. “The existing monitoring stations have become non-operational as most of their spare parts are not being produced,” he said. “We did maintenance work about a year ago and called in companies willing to operate through a tender process as the ministry itself lacks adequate financial and technical resources.”
“We will wait another two months for companies interested in operating the existing monitoring stations. So, far not a single company has shown interest. If none apply, we are planning to phase out the stations and install new ones with new equipment and technology,” Subedi said. However, Ram Charitra Sah, environment scientist associated with the Centre for Public Health and Environment Development, said that even as air pollution increases, the government has not taken necessary control or preventive steps. Even decisions by the past governments to ban two-stroke petrol engines and phase out of polluting 20-year old vehicles from the Valley have never been fully implemented.

Suffocating road expansion debris
By Samik Kharel
10 September 2012
Authorities demolished hundreds of houses, walls and encroaching structures in the Kathmandu Valley to widen roads but left tons of debris on roadsides. The road expansion campaign might be attempting to solve Valley’s traffic gridlock, but in doing so, has created another problem, as dust and dirt from the accumulated debris has further clouded our already hazy city.
The amount of dust in the air has increased significantly as discarded bricks, stones, cement and mortar lie haphazardly along the 80 km of expanded roads. “There is excess pollution on the streets. Because of the heavy air pollution, I feel sick each time I go to work,” lamented Rajesh Shrestha of New Baneshwor. “The other problem is that clothes are dirtied frequently. Clothes need to be washed as soon as they are off the streets due to the pollution in the air.”  

Shrestha complained that the government shouldn’t have attempted to expand roads if they didn’t have any intentions to do it quickly. “The government’s initiation has led to massive pollution all across the Valley, which is very hazardous to health. This pollution is going to decrease our lifespan and will weaken our immune system,” said Shrestha.  Not just pedestrians but even traffic officials complained of the air pollution. “It is very hard stay on duty these days. There is a huge layer of dust in the Valley, and when it gets dry after rains, the blowing dust makes visibility extremely poor. The dust has also been causing irritation in our eyes and throat,” said Khim Bhandari, a traffic police official deployed at Minbhawan.

As dust and dirt continue to accumulate in the Valley, experts claim that Kathmandu is vulnerable to air pollution due to its natural topography. “Since it’s a Valley, dust particles in the air don’t get dispersed. There is no strong wind to disperse the particles, hence Kathmandu is storing more and more air dirt particles,” said environmentalist Bhusan Tuladhar. Another reason that experts gave for the amount of air pollution is the Valley’s high population density.

However, Tuladhar claimed that dust particles from the recent road expansion are less harmful than the chemical agents emitted from vehicle combustion. “Since the dust particles from the demolitions are heavy and don’t contain toxic chemicals, compared to combusted particles, they only cause temporary effects like allergies and irritation,”.

Supporting the road expansion drive as a positive initiative, Tuladhar suggested that the next plan should be people-centric instead of vehicle-centric. “The road expansion shouldn’t just be about facilitating vehicles but should also concentrate on proper management of transportation. Vehicles moving smoothly on roads will decrease the level of combustion and chemical toxins in the air. The government planning should also concentrate on building footpaths, cycle lanes and green belts, all measures to reduce air pollution,” said Tuladhar.

Meanwhile, chief of the Kathmandu Valley Town Development Implementation Committee (KVTDIC) Bhai Kaji Tiwari said that they were constructing roads as quickly and efficiently as possible to decrease the pollution level. “Not just us but other authorities, including the Kathmandu Metropolitan City and the Road Department, have been actively involved in cleaning the debris,” he said. The problem, Tiwari pointed out, is because of people themselves being irresponsible. “We clean and dispose of the debris regularly, but the people who undertook the demolition individually have scattered their debris on the streets, which has been causing problems,” said Tiwari. He claimed that the debris is being used to construct rough roads in various parts of the Valley. “The cement and brick can be reused and are useful for filling in potholes and constructing rough roads. The Nepal Army has transported the debris from the expansion to construct the Bhadrakali road and the KMC has used the debris to fill in roads at Gaushala,” said Tiwari.

However, since the rainy season is almost over, the dust from the debris is likely to suffocate the city more in the winter. Tuladhar said that the government should at least make temporary plans to clean up the debris as soon as possible. “The authorities should at least prioritise cleaning the debris and building footpath lanes within a few days. If measures are not taken instantly, once the winter season arrives, Kathmandu is going to be a much dustier city and we will be complaining even more,” said Tuladhar.
International News
Arctic ice melt 'like adding 20 years of CO2 emissions'
By Susan Watts
6 September 2012
White ice reflects more sunlight than open water, acting like a parasol. Melting of white Arctic ice, currently at its lowest level in recent history, is causing more absorption.
Prof Wadhams calculates this absorption of the sun's rays is having an effect "the equivalent of about 20 years of additional CO2 being added by man". The Cambridge University expert says that the Arctic ice cap is "heading for oblivion". In 1980, the Arctic ice in summer made up some 2% of the Earth's surface. But since then the ice has roughly halved in area.
"Thirty years ago there was typically about eight million square kilometres of ice left in the Arctic in the summer, and by 2007 that had halved, it had gone down to about four million, and this year it has gone down below that," Prof Wadhams said. And the volume of ice has dropped, with the ice getting thinner: "The volume of ice in the summer is only a quarter of what it was 30 years ago and that's really the prelude to this final collapse," Prof Wadhams said. Parts of the Arctic Ocean are now as warm in summer as the North Sea is in winter, Prof Wadhams said.
Radiation absorbed The polar ice cap acts as a giant parasol, reflecting sunlight back into the atmosphere in what is known as the albedo effect.But white ice and snow reflect far more of the sun's energy than the open water that is replacing it as the ice melts.Instead of being reflected away from the Earth, this energy is absorbed, and contributes to warming:"Over that 1% of the Earth's surface you are replacing a bright surface which reflects nearly all of the radiation falling on it with a dark surface which absorbs nearly all."The difference, the extra radiation that's absorbed is, from our calculations, the equivalent of about 20 years of additional CO2 being added by man," Prof Wadhams said.
If his calculations are correct then that means that over recent decades the melting of the Arctic ice cap has put as much heat into the system as all the CO2 we have generated in that time. And if the ice continues to decline at the current rate it could play an even bigger role than greenhouse gases.
Professor Wadhams stresses that there are uncertainties - cloud cover over the Arctic could change and help reflect back some of the sun's radiation. But then another greenhouse gas - methane, currently trapped in the Arctic permafrost - could be released with warming and make matters worse.

Global carbon trading system has 'essentially collapsed'
By Fiona Harvey
10 September 2012
The UN clean development mechanism, designed to give poor countries access to green technologies, is in dire need of rescue.
The world's only global system of carbon trading, designed to give poor countries access to new green technologies, has "essentially collapsed", jeopardising future flows of finance to the developing world. Billions of dollars have been raised in the past seven years through the United Nations' system to set up greenhouse gas-cutting projects, such as windfarms and solar panels, in poor nations. But the failure of governments to provide firm guarantees to continue with the system beyond this year has raised serious concerns over whether it can survive.
A panel convened by the UN reported on Monday at a meeting in Bangkok that the system, known as the clean development mechanism (CDM), was in dire need of rescue. The panel warned that allowing the CDM to collapse would make it harder in future to raise finance to help developing countries cut carbon.
Joan MacNaughton, a former top UK civil servant and vice chair of the high level panel, told the Guardian: "The carbon market is profoundly weak, and the CDM has essentially collapsed. It's extremely worrying that governments are not taking this seriously."
The panel said that governments needed to reassure investors, who have poured tens of billions into the market, by pledging a continuation of the system, and propping up the market by toughening their targets on cutting emissions, and perhaps buying carbon credits themselves.
Governments have a last chance to restore confidence in the system when they meet in Qatar this December to discuss climate change. But few participants hold out any hope that they will agree to toughen their 2020 emissions targets, which are scarcely even on the agenda. Instead, governments are focusing on drawing up a new climate change treaty by the end of 2015, which would stipulate emissions cuts for the period after 2020.
Under the CDM, developers of projects to cut carbon emissions in developing countries receive a UN-issued carbon credit for every tonne of carbon dioxide the project avoids. This applies to a wide range of activities, from building new windfarms and solar panels, and distributing more efficient cook stoves and lights, to the installation of technology on factories to prevent the release of certain industrial gases.
The system was set up under the 1997 Kyoto protocol, after years of debate, but no credits could be issued until that treaty finally came into force in 2005. Since then, just over 1bn CDM credits have been issued.
These carbon credits can in theory be bought by the governments which are obliged by the Kyoto protocol to cut their emissions, to count against their targets. In practice, however, with the US refusing to ratify Kyoto and big emerging economies such as China, India and Mexico carrying no emissions-cutting obligations under the treaty, Europe is the only market of any size. The EU has its own cap-and-trade emissions scheme, under which heavy industries are awarded a quota of carbon they can emit, which they can top up by buying the UN credits.
But the recession and Eurozone crisis have whipped the rug from under this market. As industrial activity has declined, and the after effects of too-generous carbon quotas early on work themselves through, few EU companies now need to top up their carbon quotas. To make matters worse, the current phase of the Kyoto protocol ends this year, and of the world's major economies only the EU has pledged to continue it.
All of this has combined to bring about a collapse in the price of UN credits, from highs topping $20 (£12.50) before the financial crisis to less than $3 each today. At such rates, many potential projects are not commercially viable. Financiers and project developers have abandoned the market in droves.
MacNaughton warned that critics of the market, who argue it does not do enough to cut emissions, could end up regretting its demise, because the years of work it took to set up the market could not easily be replicated. "This is a stable framework, with functioning mechanisms and standards and legal [procedures], and all the things you need for a market. People are assuming this will all still be there in a few years when they want it again, but I don't think it will [unless they act]," she said. Even if countries decided on reform, no new system could start functioning before 2020, so the CDM could "play a bridging role".
Mitchell Feierstein, chief executive of Glacier Environmental Funds, said the CDM had long been overshadowed by bigger opportunities for green investors. "Carbon markets will exist [in future] but certainly not as they exist today," he said. "Investment capital will continue flowing into the innovative technologies which increase energy efficiency while reducing global dependence on fossil fuels. Private capital is now more easily deployed in other investment opportunities without the bureaucratic hassles of the current CDM."
But the CDM still has its optimists. Flora Yu, of the carbon specialist IdeaCarbon, said the market was likely to continue, as some countries – including Australia, China and South Korea – have been developing their own cap-and-trade carbon markets, which they will want to link to a global system. "There is still a potential opportunity for the CDM, to further develop the amount of money and resources that have already been invested in it. We think it is not going to go away."

Progress Made at Bangkok Climate Negotiations, but Is it Enough?
By Edward Cameron and Yamide Dagnet
6 September 2012
At the Bangkok negotiations that took place this past week governments argued over substance instead of arguing about procedural issues as in Bonn.
These arguments actually represent progress. Because the 50-plus issues under negotiation are contentious and have real impacts on national interests, they are deserving of robust debate. But we still have a long way to travel to get to Doha, Qatar, the location of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s (UNFCCC) COP 18 summit, which takes place this November. Significant differences of opinion persist on each of the three key issues:
1) Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP):
In Bangkok, governments outlined their respective visions for what legal form the new international climate agreement should take under the Durban Platform and what methods it should use to close the ambition gap and curb global greenhouse gas emissions. Countries agreed that there is a need for significantly greater emissions reductions leading up to 2020 if we are to achieve the goal of limiting global temperature rise to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. This kind of reduction will require broadening the number of Parties making greenhouse gas-reduction pledges, expanding the number of actions taken, and adding new commitments.
As we move forward, there is a strong desire amongst many Parties to see substantive ideas tabled in the form of more formal submissions, technical papers, and further roundtables or workshops dealing with methods to increase ambition. There is also a strong demand for leadership to increase ambition. Many countries would like to see the ministerial roundtable organized in Korea before COP18 to bring concrete ideas on how to increase ambition before 2020.
Despite the multitude of ideas, Bangkok did not translate these suggestions into a work program for the coming years in order to ensure that an agreement is finalized in 2015. Therefore, the negotiation process continued to resemble a group-brainstorming session rather than a meeting that is part of and outlines a structured path.
2) The Kyoto Protocol (KP)
As expected, the impasse over the length of the Kyoto Protocol’s second commitment period and the targets that countries are willing to commit to in that protocol have not been resolved. Countries were given a set allocation of emissions allowances for the first commitment period that ends this year. As many of them have not used the full allocation, there is an open question on what to do with these so-called “surplus allowances.” Bangkok failed to resolve this issue, but the number of options for treating surplus allowances was narrowed down considerably. This should enable progress in Doha. How this issue is resolved has a large impact on the level of ambition going forward.
A key innovation emerged during the week when the EU and Australia suggested a mechanism for increasing ambition mid-way through the second commitment period. If agreed, this approach could allow developed countries to initially commit to emissions reductions at a lower level, while reassuring developing nations that this commitment could be reviewed and enhanced over time. This issue is an important one to watch.
3) Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (LCA):
The main task facing the Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (LCA) was to close down its program of work as stipulated in the Durban agreement. But closing the LCA is proving to be a political headache. Many developing country governments argue that the LCA is closing prematurely, as it has a lot of unfinished business and unfulfilled promises, particularly on issues related to finance and the science review, which aims to ensure that the negotiation process is informed by the latest science. The developed country position remains that the LCA must close in Doha. A potential clash in Doha between the two trains of thought may be avoided if Parties are assured that some of their unfinished business will have a way forward in the post-Durban world. This will be a core issue to watch in Doha, as it is linked with the ADP work plan and who does what by when.
The Road to Doha
These three issues remain pivotal as attention now turns to COP18 in Doha. Other issues will undoubtedly emerge in the coming months, too, bringing new debates. Climate finance and equity are likely to rise on the agenda. It will be key to get a political signal from developed countries that finance will continue to flow at least at current levels and will be ramped up over time towards the agreed-upon 2020 goal of $100 billion. Developed countries facing fiscal and economic constraints are likely to push back on this commitment. On the emotive and central issue of equity, some will argue that those who are historically responsible for climate change—industrialized nations—must carry the bulk of the burden in reducing emissions in order to allow other countries to develop. The counterpoint is that all nations must act together to close the emissions gap, a difference of opinion that will set the scene for vigorous debate.
One thing is certain, though – equity cannot be about sharing failure. As we move towards Doha, discussions on both climate finance and equity need to resolve with firm paths forward—not continued bickering.

Food prices soaring thanks to global warming
by Simon Copland
7 September 2012 
A report released by the World Bank in late August showed that global food prices rose by 10% in July. The price hike has been largely due to the massive heatwaves and droughts that have swept across the United States and eastern Europe over the past few months, causing havoc for farmers, destroying crops across the continents.
The Food Price Watch report is released by the World Bank each month and tracks global food prices for several staple items. The July report found that maize and wheat prices rose 25% and soybeans by 17%. Only rice saw a drop in prices, by 4%. The price increases have been felt hardest by those in the Third World. For example, maize prices increased by 113% in July in some markets in Mozambique. In South Sudan, sorghum prices rose by 220%, while they rose by 180% in Sudan.
These price increases are now seen by scientists as a direct result not only of global warming, but also in increasing climate variability, which is causing more droughts, floods and extreme weather events. The World Watch Institute, a global sustainability research institute, blames increased prices directly on the climate variability that comes with climate change. As it states: “Climate change has been attributed to greater inconsistencies in agricultural conditions, ranging from more-erratic flood and drought cycles to longer growing seasons in typically colder climates. While the increase in Earth’s temperature is making some places wetter, it is also drying out already arid farming regions close to the equator.”
New research coming from NASA scientist James Hansen earlier this year said that we can comfortably predict that not only are these sorts of events more likely to occur, but that we can also link current extreme weather events such as the US drought with climate change, meaning we can directly link climate change to significant increases in food prices. Even if the July price increases are temporary, with increasing climate variability, we should be prepared for increased prices and more shocks.

Melting Himalayas May Magnify Water Scarcity
BY Becky Oskin
12 September 2012
Live Science
Many politically unstable areas of South Asia are "water-stressed," meaning the areas are facing water scarcity due to poor infrastructure or simply lacking enough water to meet demand.
The potential impacts of climate change on water scarcity could further inflame political tensions, finds a new report, "Himalayan Glaciers: Climate Change, Water Resources, and Water Security," released Sept. 12) by the National Research Council (NRC). The report examines how changes to Himalayan glaciers could affect the area's river systems, water supplies and population. The region's glaciers cross eight countries and are the source of drinking water, irrigation and hydroelectric power for roughly 1.5 billion people.
Water will become an even more precious commodity in regions that are already water-stressed from both social changes and environmental factors. Climate change could exacerbate this stress in the future, writes the committee who prepared the report. Therefore, changes in water supplies could play an increasing role in political tensions, especially if existing water-management institutions do not evolve to take better account of the region's social, economic and ecological complexities, the committee said.
The Himalayas span 1,200 miles (2,000 kilometers). The largest glaciers are in the west (northern Pakistan and India); they are fed by winter snow and exhibit different characteristics than glaciers in the central (Nepal) and eastern Himalayas (Bhutan), said Bodo Bookhagen, an expert on Himalayan glaciers and professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In the latter regions, the glaciers grow via monsoon-fed snows during the summer. That's why increasing temperatures that shift precipitation from snow to rain may shrink these ice fields. Glaciers in the eastern and central part of Himalayas are retreating at rates similar to those in other parts of the world, scientists summarize in the NRC report. The good news is this region gets most of its water through monsoonal rainfall, not glacial runoff. As such, melting glaciers are unlikely to cause significant changes in water availability for people living at lower elevations, the committee said. Shortages are more likely to come from overuse of groundwater resources, population growth and shifts in water-use patterns, the report concludes.
In the western Himalayas, where people do depend on runoff for water, glaciers are relatively stable, and perhaps even advancing, the report states. And the NRC researchers say they don't predict the same high water demands in this regionas on the booming Indian subcontinent.
To minimize future risk and uncertainty, the report authors call for extensive monitoring of current water use, the region's shifting climate and its glaciers. "The most dangerous situation to monitor for is a combination of state fragility (such as recent violent conflict, obstacles to economic development and weak management institutions) and high water stress," the committee wrote.
The largest impacts due to climate change over the next decade or two will most likely be the result of changes in the timing, location and intensity of monsoonal activity, the report said. Scientists debate whether the storms will arrive earlier, or with different amounts of precipitation than before. Some models project that global warming will increase rainfall, an example of which is the flooding in Pakistan in July and August 2010, which killed 1,760 and had losses totaling $9.5 billion. However, as a whole, the region fed by the monsoon has experienced below-average rainfall in the past decade.

Link of the Week
by Prashanta Khanal in The Kathmanuc Post

Did you Know ?
Over 1,900 people die every year in the Valley due to air pollution, coming down to five premature deaths each day, according to a 2006 study by the Nepal Health Research Council and the World Health Organization. The number is likely to risen even higher in recent years as the Capital’s air quality has only continued to deteriorate.
Media and Event Watch
Every Monday 8:30 pm on Nepal FM 91.8 MHZ “Climate Change Mero Bhawisya Mero Chaso”
Every Sunday at 7:30 am on Radio Sagarmatha 102.4 MHz "Batabaran Dabali"
Every Monday at 5:30 pm (re-telecast every Tuesday 11 am) on ABC Television “Climate Change
Every Alternate Friday at 2 PM on ENPHO Hall – “Green Discussion” Organized by Clean Energy Nepal, Nepalese Youth for Climate Action anGrnd Green Youth Network
Every Friday on The Himalayan Times “THT Green Plus”
Environment Cycle Radio F.M.104.2Mhz (ECR FM)
QUIZ of the Week # 525
Nepal is implementing Local adaptation plans of action (LAPAs) in far and mid western regions of Nepal. What are LAPA about
a) Climate Change Adaptation
b) Climate Change Finance
c) Climate Change Mitigation
d) Technology Transfer

While sending your answer please mention “Quiz of the week#” in the subject line and please send your answer in
One lucky winner will get an attractive prized from Clean Energy Nepal.
Answer of the week # 524
COP 18 will be held in one of the Asian countries, i.e. Qatar. Which country from Asia group was another contender to hold the COP 18 before Qatar was selected?
c) South Korea

The following participants provided correct answer:

Mitramani Pokharel

Ramchandra Subedi
Arbin Shrestha
Rajan KC
Heerakaji Maharjan
Santosh Kuinkel

Ramchandra Subedi is the winner of the week. Please contact CEN office with your valid ID card within a week.
Congratulations to the winner and thanks to all the participants.

Compiled and Edited by:
Sunil Acharya and Prashanta Khanal

Clean Energy Nepal (CEN)

140 Bulbule Marg, Thapagaon, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Tel: 977-1-44464981