Shifting to Euro VI Emission Standard in Nepal
A Discussion on “Shifting to Euro VI Emission Standard in Nepal” was held in Kathmandu (Alfa House, New Baneshwor) on 12th April, 2022 from 2:00 PM to 4:30 PM. The main objective of the event was to discuss on the environmental-economic consequences as well as technical capacity of shifting to Euro VI emission standard. The event was organized by the Clean Energy Nepal (CEN) under transition to no and low emission mobility for improved air quality and climate change mitigation with the support of United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
The event had 20 participants representing civil society organizations (CSO), entrepreneurs, media, academia, youths and government agencies.
Prof. Dr. Amrit M. Nakarmi, Coordinator, Energy Systems Planning & Analysis Unit at Center for Energy Studies Institute of Engineering, TU presented on the technical aspects of Euro IV and VI.
The presentation included:
Euro VI equivalent to Bharat Stage (BS) VI have already been implemented in India since 2020. Different harmful emissions like ash, carbon residue, sulfur and other contaminants emission has decreased with the use of BS-VI fuel and vehicles as compared to BS-II, III and IV in both gasoline and diesel specifications. Key improvements of BS-VI over BS-IV includes reduction of sulfur from 50 to 10 ppm, Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) deduction to 8% from 11% alongside lower NOx emissions, lower PM emissions and lower hydrocarbon emissions. Different concerns in the implementation of Euro-VI of suppliers and consumers alongside fuel quality, technology and enforcement of plans. He suggested things like market analysis, monitoring, effective policy and much more to be the better way forward while shifting form Euro-IV to Euro-VI while concluding this presentation.
The panel discussion was moderated by Mr. Bhusan Tuladhar, Chief of Party, Swachchha Hawa and Chairperson of CEN. Mr. Kapil Siwakoti, Central Committee Member and President, Environment Committee, NADA: Clean air is of concern for everyone. Nepal does not produce cars despite motorbikes of certain brands under the brand name of the particular company are assembled. Moreover, Nepal’s automobile trading is import based trading, we do not manufacture but only distribute and provide after sales services. Most (95%) of our automobiles are imported from India so the standards applied in India have direct relation to Nepalese markets.
Moreover, while changing from BH3 to BH4, technologically there are small changes. However, while changing from BH4 to BH6, there is a drastic change in technology as well as associated higher cost of operation. NADA strongly voices that without preparing technical manpower, at least the commercial automobiles should not be switched to BH6 and should only be introduced in the market after there is creation of baseline infrastructure and manpower in the market which might take more 3-4 years and the government too should take the responsibility and make the policy more suitable. Existing gaps between the policy and the implementation should be dictated i.e. 20 years or older vehicles still plying, fragile random checking system of imported vehicle’s COP criterion, government's role in public transport. There was discussion on that pollution control fund can be utilized in soothing the economy of shifting to Euro VI and the capacity building of mechanics and other necessary institutions can be filled by the warranty of two years gap.
Mr. Keshab Raj Joshi, Environment Inspector, Ministry of Forest and Environment (MoFE) put forward that Euro VI is the target of the government. However, discussion raised on the issue that implementing Euro III standard in 2069 BS, Government had planned shifting to Euro IV within 2 years but 9 years have passed since then and it has not been yet materialized as it was missed to be included into the gazette.
Dr. Rejina Maskey Byanju, Professor CDES, TU highlighted on the existing gap between study and research even in the developed countries. In case of Nepal, it's very difficult to take the measurement of ideal moving vehicles due to the road and lack of instruments. There was discussion that heavy vehicles are the main polluters thus shifting to Euro VI will reduce air pollution. Seeing the condition shifting the grade from Euro IV to Euro VI is the best option for Nepal.
Mr. Gopal Prasad Aryal, Director General of Department of Environment: Mr. Gopal Prasad Aryal, agreed on the existing gap between theory and practice in Nepal, and further ensured that the government is working to bridge the gaps. He pointed out that the Nepal government is taking standard measures to manage pressure at the moment, more than only moving to Euro IV or Euro VI. Additionally, he mentioned that air pollution is a serious concern in Nepal, and there is no alternative for electric vehicles in Nepal at least in Kathmandu for that a focal point and working groups with private organizations, and that the Nepalese government is crucial because without cabinet discussion it is impossible to work on this issue more seriously and effectively. Furthermore, he stated that there is no doubt we have to move to euro VI, but for that we need to fix a time frame, maybe a year or two-year time frame. There are ways for us to even sub classify commercial vehicles in order to put Euro VI into practice. But to achieve that, we must first enact strong laws and policies by the Government. He ended his speech by saying, the government is strongly focused on generating skilled manpower and technology to implement Euro VI, and is working hard to reduce air pollution in a very positive manner.